Keeping your customers happy and coming back for more is an essential strategy for any business. Still, many companies are shortsighted and focus on one-off purchases from new buyers rather than repeat purchases from existing customers.
Hanging on to repeat customers and nurturing that relationship can be extremely lucrative, considering that repeat customers generally spend 67% more than new customers.
One metric in particular can help companies understand the value of existing buyers: customer lifetime value.
Customer lifetime value (CLV) is the amount a customer can be expected to spend on a company’s services or products during their entire relationship or lifetime.
CLV is essentially calculated as follows:
Average Value of a Sale (x) Number of Transactions (x) Retention Time Period (x) Profit Margin
The result will vary between industries, but, broadly speaking, if the number is low, you’ve got your work cut out for you, and if the number is high, you can pop open the bubbly (but still keep working to improve it).
Ready to learn more? Keep reading for everything you’ll ever need to know about CLV.
- What is Customer Lifetime Value
- How to Calculate CLV
- Factors That Contribute to Customer Lifetime Value
- Why is CLV Important?
- How to Improve Customer Lifetime Value + Examples
- Complete Infographic
Customer lifetime value, also called lifetime value (LTV), refers to the profit margin that a company can expect to earn during its business relationship with a customer.
Keeping this metric in mind helps companies take a longer view and shift their focus from simple transactions to the extended value of repeat business.
Of course, it’s crucial to find new customers so that your company can grow, but for your business model to be sustainable, it’s also imperative to bolster the lifetime value of existing customers.
Unfortunately, many companies dismiss, ignore or underappreciate this metric because it can be tricky to define and calculate. What’s more, data shows that 44% of companies are focused on acquiring new customers while just 18% are committed to retention. If you’re in the latter group, it’s time to step it up and really focus on the CLV.
Keep in mind that just a 5% increase in customer retention can boost your profits by more than 25%, so it’s clearly well worth the effort.
To calculate CLV, we’re going to have to consider two other metrics: ARPU, or average revenue per user, and churn rate.
ARPU measures the amount of money a company can expect to generate from an individual customer.
To calculate it, we use this formula:
Total revenue generated during the period / The number of users during that same period
Here’s an example: Say your company generated $3,500 in revenue last month, and it had 250 active users. The average revenue per user would be $3,500/250, or $14.
The churn rate is the rate at which customers stop doing business with you.
To calculate churn, we use this formula:
(Total number of customers at the beginning of a period – Total number of customers at the end of the period) / The number of customers at the beginning of the period
Here’s an example: Your company had 2,000 customers at the beginning of the year and ended up with 800 at the end of the year. The churn rate would be (2,000-800)/2,000, or 60%.
Customer Lifetime Value Formula
There are multiple ways to calculate CLV. We’re going to look at two possibilities here, one using the ARPU and churn that we mentioned above and one using other metrics. The formula you use will depend mainly on the data you have available.
The first method is to divide ARPU by the churn rate:
Customer lifetime value = ARPU / Churn Rate
A second method for calculating CLV is by using the following formula:
Customer Lifetime Value = Average Value of a Sale x Number of Transactions
x Retention Period x Profit Margin
Keep reading for some real examples.
Example CLV Calculation
Let’s look at two examples so we can understand CLV better.
You already know your company has a churn rate of 10% and an ARPU of $30. Using the first formula, we get:
30 / 0.10 = $300
The average customer lifetime value for your company would be $300.
Let’s use the other formula.
Your company sells menswear. The average sale is $75, and the average customer shops with you 4 times per year for 3 years. You know that your profit margin is 20% after taking into account overhead, the cost of goods sold, marketing expenses, and administrative costs.
Using our formula, CLV would be calculated as follows:
$75 x 4 x 3 x 20% = $180
Your company’s average customer lifetime value is $180, and you can now use this information to predict cash flow. You can also figure out how many customers you’ll need to acquire and retain if you’re going to achieve your target profitability.
Several important factors contribute to customer lifetime value. Let’s take a look at three of the most important ones.
In the simplest terms, churn rate (also called the rate of attrition and customer churn) refers to the rate at which customers stop doing business with a company. Of course, a lower churn rate is desirable. A higher churn not only affects revenue but also suggests that customers are unhappy or dissatisfied with your product or service.
The churn rate will depend on many factors, including how long you’ve been in business (e.g., start-ups have higher churns than companies that have been around for a long time) and how well you serve your customers and stand out from the competition.
Churn rate and customer lifetime value are closely intertwined. The lower the churn rate, the higher the CLV because your customers continue to buy from you for a longer period. Therefore, the longer your customers continue to buy from you, the higher your CLV.
You can calculate your customer lifetime, which is the period of time a customer can be expected to use your service or buy from you, with the churn rate. The formula is:
Customer lifetime = 1 / churn
For example, if your churn is 5% per month, the customer lifetime is 1/0.05, or 20 months.
Customer retention rates are a key metric and essentially measure the rate at which customers continue to do business with a company over a given period. Average retention rates will vary between industries: a supermarket’s retention rate will differ from a vacation booking company’s rate. Obviously, the higher the rate, the better.
CLV is, essentially, a measure of customer loyalty. The more you make customers feel special, the more loyal to your brand they become. The more loyal they are, the more they spend, the more they make referrals, and the higher their CLV, which is excellent for your business.
To know your customer retention rate, you need the following information:
- The number of existing customers at the beginning of the period
- The number of total customers at the end of the period
- The number of new customers added within the time period
To calculate it, subtract the number of new customers from the total number of customers at the end of the period, and divide that number by the existing customers at the beginning of the period.
Number of customers at the end of a period – Number of new customers that sign up during the period / Number of customers at the beginning of the period
For example: In January you have 250 customers. At the end of the month, you lose 25 but gain 30, ending the month with 255: 255-30/250 is 90%.
The Churn comes into play here as well. Once you can see where customers churn, you can identify the areas for improvement and work on boosting loyalty.
It’s worth noting that retention and churn are two opposing metrics. The former refers to the ratio of customers that return to do business with you, and the latter is the number of customers you’ve lost during a specific period.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses also affect customer lifetime value, so it should be scalable. Especially if your revenue growth is connected to your sales and marketing costs, the latter will have to be optimized to maintain and increase CLV.
You’ll need to track your KPIs carefully and measure performance so that you can switch things up and pivot if you see your strategy isn’t yielding the results you want to see. It will be vital to conduct A/B testing, consider new channels and optimize for conversions if you’re going to scale your sales and marketing efforts.
CLV is a crucial metric as it allows companies to understand the value of retained customers. If the success rate of selling to an existing customer is 60-70% and to a new customer is 5-20%, it makes a ton of sense for companies to try to increase their CLV any way they can.
Let’s take a look at the five most significant reasons why CLV is so important.
- It can help boost profit: Increasing customer retention rates by just 5% has been shown to increase profits by 25% to 95%. This, at least in part, is because existing customers are 50% more likely to try out new products and statistics show they spend 31% more than new customers.
Thus, repeat customers increase your average CLV because customer retention can improve not only the number of sales per order but also sales over time. Since you spend only once to acquire a customer and customer retention costs less than the acquisition cost, your CLV can increase and translate into more profit.
- It can lower customer acquisition costs (CAC): Companies that interact with and nurture their customers will enjoy higher profit margins and lower CAC. It’s actually an expensive proposition for companies to go out and constantly try to find new customers. If acquiring a new customer can cost between 5% and 25% more than hanging onto an existing one, it makes all the sense in the world to take care of your current ones.
- It can help you maintain a steady cash flow: If you’re getting repeat sales from existing customers, that will create a very nice, regular cash flow. When you know you have money coming in, it’s easier to reinvest it back into your business. When you know people will be coming back for more, you know you have a steady flow of cash to work with.
- It can increase customer loyalty and retention: CLV allows companies to identify their most valuable customers and offer them personalized rewards and incentives. At the same time, you can build strong relationships with new customers and retain them through stellar customer support, attractive loyalty programs, and other lucrative incentives to win their loyalty and long-term business. When you have repeat customers, you get more sales, good reviews, and referrals.
- It can allow you to target your ideal customers: Understanding CLV can give you a better idea of what kind of customers spend the most money on your business. It allows you to segment your audience according to their CLV. Then you can use look-alike modeling to adapt your acquisition strategy to the target audience matching your customers with the highest CLV. From there, you can work to increase your customer lifetime value further.
Once you’ve calculated your CLV, it’s time to figure out how you can improve it. Below are seven strategies you can start implementing today, along with examples of companies that are successfully executing them.
1: Keep Customers Engaged With Personalized Content
It’s beneficial to know who your customers are, what they want, and how much value they’re bringing to your business.
Once you know who’s buying from you—whether a first-time buyer, a repeat buyer, or a raving fan of your product or service—you’ll learn how to address them better. Segmentation is a powerful tool. Once you have a better understanding of what they want, it will allow you to segment your customers based on the value they bring to your business.
When you create CLV segments, you can group your customers based on the amount of money, both past, and future, that you can expect them to spend on your business. Then you can send them relevant, personalized content.
You can target your VIP customers accordingly to ensure retention and identify your ‘less valuable’ customers to upsell them and boost their CLV. Similarly, you can send targeted campaigns to new customers or returning visitors who you believe have the potential to spend a certain amount on your business during the year.
Today’s consumers increasingly want personalized content and offers, and if you can use your CLV calculations to deliver it, you’ll probably get a leg up on the competition. In fact, 80% of consumers say they’re more likely to buy a product or service from a brand that offers a personalized experience. In comparison, 72% say they only engage in marketing messages customized to their specific interests.
Example: Australia’s online wine club, Vinomofo, has had proven success segmenting its web traffic into three groups: new visitors, returning visitors, and returning customers. They offered new visitors a $15 incentive to join their community while returning visitors who hadn’t yet made any purchases got a reminder of their $15 voucher, and regular customers got a different pitch.
Vinomofo has been segmenting customers based on relative value and has been able to re-engage lapsed customers and increase active and recovered customers.
They’re even using a surprise-and-delight retention strategy: They know the average number of customer orders per year is four. “Nick” has made three purchases so far, so they expect him to make more, so they send him a gift to “surprise-and-delight” him intending to drive growth in his CLV.
Another example—Hosting Canada used a different approach to segment its clients. It sent its customers a user experience survey to see what people thought about the business. Then they organized the results into three main categories: the people that loved them and would never leave them, the group that thought they were no better or worse than the competition but stuck around because they liked their options, and those customers who seemed to dislike everything about the company.
The strategy? Ignore the first group because they are their raving fans, ignore the last group because they were a lost cause, and pour all of their energy into the second group to turn them into members of the first group. This would essentially increase CLV, among other important metrics. These efforts paid off, and Hosting Canada maintained this strategy and hasn’t looked back.
2: Provide Premium Customer Service
Never underestimate the power of excellent customer service. The old adage “the customer is always right” is very much alive. People can change brands after a poor experience, even if the product is better than the competition.
When companies offer superior customer service, they improve the customer experience, which can help turn buyers into a brand’s loyal defenders and supporters. Studies show that 70% of buying experiences are based on how customers feel they’re being treated.
There are many ways to go the extra mile when it comes to post-sales support. Companies can and should:
- Offer live support: People want their problems solved and their questions answered as quickly as possible, and if it can be in real-time, even better. Companies that offer real-time support are seeing an increase in both satisfaction and sales as half of all customers prefer to chat with someone in real-time instead of telephone or email support.
- Stay active on social media: Customers seek engagement on social media because they expect a quick response, so make sure you give them a positive one. This is especially true if they’re sharing a problem or a complaint. If they don’t receive a response, you may find them sharing their poor experience far and wide on social media.
- Take responsibility and respond with empathy: If your customers identify a problem, it’s essential to take responsibility for it, tell them what happened, and give them a timeline for a solution. Show empathy, put yourself in their shoes, and let them know you understand their frustration and that you’re doing everything you can to help them. Every business has problems, but the way you handle them directly impacts the perception of your brand.
- Offer around-the-clock support: Since customers want their problems solved immediately, companies that provide 24/7 support will win brownie points here. It may be expensive, but if it means being able to retain your customers, you may find it’s totally worth it when your average CLV increases. If this isn’t an option, it’s vital to respond to support tickets as quickly as possible.
- Offer support through multiple channels: People often switch devices over the course of the day. Find out which devices and apps your customers use the most. That might be Twitter, Instagram, Telegram, or Whatsapp. Or maybe your customers with the highest LCV prefer SMS text or email. The more platforms and methods you can use to offer support, the better chance you have of helping your customers and retaining them.
- Go above and beyond: When you communicate proactively and develop relationships with your customers, you can more effectively build brand loyalty and turn followers into friends. Connect with them. Ask them questions directly about their experience with your product or service. Ask them to share photos. If they’re staying at your hotel, for example, send them flowers or chocolates and thank them for picking you. If they bought your clothing, send them a discount code for their next purchase.
Customer service can make or break your business, especially considering that 72% of customers say they share their good experiences and 62% share their bad experiences with other people.
Example: Airplane food has a reputation for being anything but delicious. On a Virgin Atlantic flight, one customer in first class was so appalled by the Indian food he was served that he sent a personal letter to complain to the company.
What did Richard Brandon and his team do? They involved that passenger in a complete overhaul of the airline’s menu and then invited him to participate on the airline’s culinary council board.
Another great example? Zappos prides itself on its stellar customer service, operating under the tagline “Vow to Wow.” Founder Tony Hsieh even wrote a book on the company’s strategy called Delivering Happiness. Zappos earned the spotlight when one customer shipped her jewelry to the company by mistake. Zappos saved the package carefully and personally delivered it to the customer’s home, safe and sound.
3: Create an Easy-To-Understand Loyalty Program
Everyone likes to be appreciated, and your customers are no different. Find a way to reward them, and they will keep coming back for more. Time and again, these loyalty programs have proven to improve retention, increase referrals, and boost purchase frequency. This makes customer loyalty and engagement programs a no-brainer.
But what do customers want exactly?
This will depend on the nature of your business and the CLV segment you’re targeting. Broadly speaking, loyalty programs that offer exclusive discounts, gifts, and access to early product releases are the most effective in the long run. The best programs expertly incorporate elements of behavioral economics, psychology, and gaming.
A 2017 census revealed that 53% of people want a program that’s easy to use, 39% want great discounts, and 37% want something easy to understand. Meanwhile, users abandon programs that take too long to earn points for rewards, don’t provide exciting prizes, or send too many irrelevant communications.
Other tips for creating a loyalty program that works include:
- Make redemption as easy as possible
- Offer bonus points to keep people engaged
- Personalize rewards according to their CLV
- Give back to the community or social causes
- Reward a wide variety of customer actions
- Turn it into a game
- Offer customers many opportunities to sign up
- Partner with other companies to provide unique offers or rewards
Companies need to understand that not all customers are the same and, therefore, they shouldn’t be treated equally. It makes a huge difference when companies give their best value to their best customers. When companies treat all customers the same regardless of how long they’ve been customers or how much they spend, the most profitable customers begin to look elsewhere for better deals. Loyalty programs are a key to keep them hooked.
Example: One company that takes the cake with its loyalty program is Starbucks. Starbucks offers stars to reward customers, which they can then exchange for coffee and other products. Stars can earn them a customized drink, baked goods, sandwiches and salads, and select merchandise.
The rewards program members can get relevant, individualized offers based on the data collected by their cards. They can also lock in their orders before they even reach the store. The card was replaced by a digital app to be more sustainable.
Members can also order through voice command and get rewards when they buy Starbucks packaged coffee at grocery stores. The coffee company created a gaming element that also lets users earn points and collect prizes.
With more than 19 million numbers, Starbucks has been taking action for years, to the point that it has impacted the entire retail industry and is setting an example that other companies can, and probably should, emulate.
Other loyalty programs that work but which are less complex include Amazon’s Prime Membership. Members enjoy quick and free shipping on millions of products, not to mention access to special Prime Day sales and the company’s streaming service. Another great example is CVS. Its rewards card gives ExtraCare members 2% back on all of their purchases four times per year.
4: Highlight Loyal Customers and Put Them in the Spotlight
Imagine getting recognized by a brand you love? This can only increase brand loyalty and make your customers shout about it from the rooftops.
Companies that use social media to feature their customers and share their experiences can get an immense engagement and conversion boost. When you feature fans and fan-made content, you’re letting them know how much you appreciate them. Chances are they will reciprocate and become a valuable marketing asset.
For example, fan-made content has 28% higher engagement on social media and can boost everything from lead generation to social customer service. Fan-made content has many advantages.
First, it can be repurposed in myriad ways.
- You can make a video and share it on YouTube.
- You can make a slideshow.
- You can take audio from fans and make it into a podcast.
- You can feature customer contributions in blog posts.
That content supporting your brand, product or service is already made for you; all you have to do is share it.
Second, it makes you more authentic. Company-driven content is all well and good, but when you have real people talk about your products, that’s where the magic happens. People want to see others like them reaping the benefits of your services.
In fact, 90% of consumers say that authenticity is critical when deciding which brands to use, and 79% say that user-generated content impacts their purchasing decisions.
Thirdly, fan-made content is the best kind of social proof. The bandwagon effect suggests that people are more likely to engage in something if they see others doing it. Fan-made content is an easy and effective marketing tool for convincing others of the value of your product or service.
Example: There are plenty of companies that are leveraging this strategy. One is Harpoon Harry’s Crabhouse in Tennessee. This restaurant has turned diners into repeat customers by creating contests and featuring the winners on social media. It also shares customer comments and photos on its Facebook page, which has more than 18,000 likes and over 18,300 followers.
Similarly, the clothing brand Free People is saving money on models by getting real-life customers to share photos of themselves wearing their clothes. Those photos appear on the company’s Instagram account. This is a win-win situation. The photos offer social proof of the brand’s popularity, and buyers can see exactly what the clothes look like on regular people, styled in different ways.
Free People also allows users to comment and like those images to have entire conversations revolving around their clothing.
5: Build a Community
A great way to boost CLV is to help create a community for your customers where they can interact with like-minded people. When you appeal to a buyer’s sense of community, you’re essentially building loyalty. Consumers will find it harder to leave behind a brand with which they have community ties.
Especially today, when people feel more lonely and isolated than ever, creating an online community gives people a sense of belonging and makes them feel like they’re a part of your brand.
Building a community is a long-term strategy that can bear fruit for a long time, but there are a few rules to follow. You need to:
- Have an attractive reason for people to join
- Make it worth their time to engage with your brand and its audience
- Make it easy for members to share and invite
There’s no shortage of benefits once you’ve created your community. Besides fostering brand loyalty, it can reduce support costs as users and members can ask for help and troubleshoot problems together. A brand’s community can create user-generated content, including authentic Q&As, product reviews, and comments.
A community increases exposure and credibility for your brand. As members share and promote the brand on social media, it can be a source of invaluable data and feedback through which you can learn more about what your customers are thinking. In fact, 67% of businesses use the insight provided by their communities to launch new products, features, and services.
Example: Disney is an excellent example of a company that leverages its community for growth. Of course, it’s been around for a century, but even still, Disney has been able to create a series of characters with which people develop special, long-lasting emotional relationships.
The Disney community extends to every corner of the globe and has given rise to a series of events and traditions that bring everyone together. One such event is Dapper Day when people visit the theme parks dressed in sophisticated clothing. Similarly, the D23 Expo, a 3-day annual event, seeks to bring together Disney community members to celebrate the magic and share the experience.
Another company expertly using the community approach is Sephora. Creating a sense of belonging around make-up products is an excellent idea as consumers are generally interested in sharing experiences and learning about new products.
Sephora made an online community called Beauty Insider, which is essentially a huge forum that connects consumers and gives them a place to share ideas, ask questions and have their beauty issues resolved by fellow members.
On the company’s Beauty Board, users are invited to upload their photos using the Sephora products. Then they add links to those photos, making it easy for customers to buy them.
6: Listen Extremely Closely to Your Customers
The companies that have the highest customer retention always actively listen to their customers. Every interaction, every purchase, every customer support ticket is an opportunity to connect with your ideal audience and learn exactly what your buyers are thinking. You can learn a lot if you pay attention.
When you truly understand your customers’ likes, dislikes, and preferred methods of communication, only then do you have the ability to truly engage with them and extend that relationship for a longer period of time.
Customers tell you whether they’re satisfied or not. What you do with that information and how you handle it impacts your relationship with your customers, turning them into defectors or fans. Listening to them allows you to keep your finger on the pulse of the business.
There are many places where a company can listen to its customers:
- Feedback: Customer feedback can inform you of the improvements you need to make to your business and the products you need to focus on. It’s the key to knowing how to satisfy your current customers better and attract new ones in the future. To receive feedback, you can follow up after a sale, send your customers a survey, and offer a discount if they answer questions for you.
- Reviews: Listen to both good and bad reviews. Take it all as constructive criticism, make sure to analyze it, and make changes accordingly. When you have happy customers, it’s essential to understand the driving factors behind that satisfaction, and when you have unhappy customers, it’s equally important to understand that dissatisfaction to make the corresponding improvements.
Make it easy for customers to leave reviews. If customers take the time to leave a review, make sure you take the time to respond. Thank them for sharing their insight, and let them know you’re listening. Incredibly, 42% of companies don’t listen to their customers. That’s not nearly enough.
- Focus groups: Another great way to listen to your customers is to create focus groups. When you bring together a group of your customers, either in person but especially online, they can provide valuable insight. Companies can even create focus groups with customers across the globe, which can help them understand the different issues in different locations.
Example: McDonald’s in the UK showed it was listening when it decided to switch from plastic to paper straws, thanks to a campaign that collected over a million signatures.
This move not only showed the brand’s commitment to sustainability and the environment but also that it’s actively listening to its customers and is willing to change its policies to satisfy them.
Bread company Bimbo also showed it was paying attention to its customers when its red velvet treat caused an uproar. The company sells a product called the Gansito, similar to the Twinkie, which is popular in the US and Mexico. When Bimbo sold a limited edition version of the Gansito in red velvet, they sold like hotcakes in the US, but Mexican consumers were furious they didn’t have access to this treat.
When the company saw a massive rise in mentions and online conversations of the red velvet Gansito, they made it available in two Mexican cities to gauge interest. It sold out four weeks earlier than anticipated. If Bimbo hadn’t been listening, it would have missed a significant opportunity.
7: Make the Shopping Experience as Seamless as Possible
The easier it is to do business with you, the more returning customers you will get. In fact, 83% of shoppers say convenience is more important than it was five years ago, and online shoppers feel even more strongly.
There are many ways you can make the purchase experience more convenient, and this will vary from business to business.
It might mean storing customer information so people can make purchases more quickly or letting people check out as guests if they don’t want to share all of their information.
Convenience is sharing a link on Twitter if someone asks about buying a product. It’s about offering multiple shipping options, including fast and even free shipping. You could offer curbside pick-up if it makes sense for your business.
Convenience also means making sure your site is intuitive and easy to use, mobile-optimized, and quick to load. It means offering a wide variety of payment options (from credit cards to PayPal) and ensuring customer service is as fast and attentive as possible.
Today’s customers are more demanding than ever, and if you don’t make it easy to buy from you, you can be sure that they will find someone else. To succeed in today’s crowded marketplace, companies need to be 100% customer-focused, maximizing all of the conveniences they can offer. Put yourself in your customers’ shoes and ask yourself: Will this make it easier to buy from me?
The foundations of convenience in business really boil down to six points:
- Reduce friction and make it easy to do business with you
- Leverage technology for a smooth customer experience
- Let customers own the experience
- Deliver your product or service to the customer
- Create an automatic delivery option if it makes sense for you
- Ensure customers have plenty of access to you
Example: Uber is an excellent example of not only a company that is committed to convenience but one that disrupted the entire taxi industry. For customers, all they have to do is open the app and enter their destination.
They will see where the nearest driver is and how much it’s going to cost. They’ll get picked up and dropped off at their destination, and their credit card will be charged accordingly. It’s a completely frictionless and incredibly convenient business model.
Similarly, mattress maker Casper is one of several companies disrupting the mattress industry, offering customers new ways to buy mattresses. The company has simplified the purchasing process, eliminating the need for customers to visit a store.
Since consumers buy it online, they can compare mattress features and prices before buying. When the mattress is delivered, it’s packaged in a tidy, easy-to-move box so it can be moved to the bedroom.
The company caters to different preferences by offering various levels of firmness to accommodate consumers’ sleeping styles. Casper offers free shipping, 24/7 customer support, a 10-year warranty, and better prices since customers buy directly from the manufacturer. They also offer a 100-day trial period. Sleep on the mattress for 100 days: if you love it, keep it, and if you don’t, return it for free and for a full refund.
You can now see the importance of calculating and understanding your customer lifetime value (CLV). Once you know how valuable a customer is to your company, not just in terms of individual purchases but across your whole relationship, you’ll be able to dig deeper to figure out who they are, how to serve them better, and how to find similar persons. You can find out all the answers in concrete, measurable numbers with CLV.